Hydraulic Forging Presses
Forging is one of the world’s earliest metalworking applications. Historically performed by blacksmiths using a hammer and anvil, forging has evolved into a process that now uses modern, programmable forming equipment resulting in superior part quality and higher production rates. Due to the application’s versatility, hydraulic forging presses are often a great choice for operations requiring superior part strength, custom shapes and sizes, or unique performance specifications.
Types of Forging
Beckwood designs custom hydraulic forging presses for open and closed die forging as well as hot and cold forging. Each process has its advantages and disadvantages depending on your production needs.
Open Die Forging
Open die forging uses multiple dies which do not fully enclose the part. This process is ideal for simple shapes at lower volumes, and secondary machining is typically required.
Closed Die Forging
In closed die forging, the part is surrounded entirely by the tool or dies. It is used to form more complex shapes at higher volumes, with little to no secondary machining required. Costs for closed dies are typically much higher than open dies, but this process results in better accuracy of the finished part.
In both of these forging processes, “flash” or excess material is a byproduct. Although, in closed-die forging the flash is less apparent because of the closed-dies, which use the flash to its advantage during the forming process.
Hot forging allows for the best material deformation during the forging process because of the addition of heat. Typically, hot forging presses utilize an electric heating system which has the highest temperature capacity of all press heating methods. These higher temperatures allow for the creation of more complex geometries without straining the material. While hot forged parts can be more customized, their costs are typically higher than cold forging due to the added press features and required fixture quenching.
Cold forging is best for simple shapes, high part volumes, and limited budgets. Cold forging presses are usually designed at a much higher tonnage because additional force is required to manipulate cold or ambient-temperature materials. Cold forged materials need to have high ductility and less sensitivity to strain hardening to withstand the cold forging process without cracks and breaks.